At another website someone made the claim that it is impossible to prove there are an infinite number of prime numbers. I recently took up the challenge and came up with the following proof:
1. Let N represent any integer between 1 and infinity.
2. Let X = 10^N.
3. Let A be the set of all whole numbers that divide into X without leaving any remainder. Set A will contain 2 and 5. Thus X is not a prime number.
4. Let P = X + 1. P may be a prime number because no number in set A can divide P without leaving a remainder of 1. Thus, P can only be divided by itself and 1.
5. So it appears that since N can be any integer between 1 and infinity, and since P is derived from N, there are an infinite number of prime numbers.
Caveat: Set A does not account for all the whole numbers outside of A which may or may not divide evenly into P. Since there are an unlimited number of such whole numbers, it may be impossible to test them all.
Of course Euclid came up with a proof that still stands today. Here is an excerpt from http://www.curiouser.co.uk/facts/pnproof.htm:
"Euclid proved that there are an infinite number numbers. He did this by first considering the possibility that there are a finite number of primes.
"He knew that by definition all non-prime numbers were expressible by multiply together different combinations of prime numbers. Then he considered multiply together all the known prime numbers and adding 1. He realised that this number could not be divisible by any of the known primes because dividing by any of the known prime numbers would leave a remainder of 1. This number would therefore either have to be prime itself, or be divisible by another prime number that was not known.
"In this way he was able to show that however many prime numbers were known, it would always be possible to show that there are more."