Â In 1952 a brilliant paper was published in England by Osmond & Smythies in the Journal of Mental Science, a prestigious psychiatry publication. Osmond was disappointed with the reception he got to this article, which claimed that DMPEA, a mescaline-like substance similar to brain catecholamines, caused schizophrenia. This toxic substance was created by abnormal methylation.
Â Osmond was so mad that he moved to Saskatchewan, Canada. However, professor Nolan Lewis of the US was impressed by the theory. Osmond met Dr. Abram Hoffer, who was also impressed.
Â Hoffer modified the theory, thinking that the unknown toxin was adrenochrome. Adrenochrome is an oxidation product of adrenaline that is toxic. However, there is very little adrenaline in the brain. He got some support from Altschule of Massachusetts. However, most psychiatrists rejected the adrenochrome theory. They felt that there wasn't enough evidence for it. To this day Hoffer, who invented his version of the theory in the Fifties, sticks to the adrenochrome theory.
Â Hoffer was director of psychiatric research in a mental hospital in Saskatchewan. Osmond was made the director of the hospital. Unfortunately Osmond is now deceased. Hoffer is in his ninties and still working hard! Nolan Lewis is deceased, unfortunately.
Â Both Hoffer & Osmond got support from Linus Pauling. It seems that Hoffer had a Ph. D. in biochemistry as well as an M.D. Osmond was a psychiatrist. Pauling was a chemistry professor who won two unshared Nobel Prizes! All three were prolific writers. Hoffer & Osmond thought that nutrition should be used as a treatment. This was supported by Pauling. I also support his, but my theories are different.
Â The three were severely criticized by the APA (American Psychiatric Association), heavily funded by the drug companies. However, Pauling blasted them back saying that they were biased and that they only looked at the niacin treatment. Pauling's theories were much more general than just niacin.
Â Although Pauling was severely criticized by the medical Establishment, a number of research studies have verified his views on a number of subjects including cancer. After his death he was honored by a huge section in Profiles in Science on the National Library of Medicine website. He is now considered to have been a prophet. Kunin backs Pauling's views.
Â Dr. Andrew Weil, perhaps the most famous doctor in America, has similar views on mental health except that Weil favors the use of fish oil. Weil also is open to alternative medicine for cancer. Pauling felt that nutrition should be used to attack cancer.
My Own Theories
Â My own theory involves what the toxin does. The toxin causes amino acids to flood the cells. Activated lymphocytes have been reported by Russian workers. These lymphocytes are activated because amino acids are flooding the cells. This points towards a possible treatment. The treatment is a diet very low in amino acids. Other treatments are also possible. It may be possible to slow the production of the toxin or to increase the destruction of it. These matters are discussed extensively in the articles in the bibliography. I favor the use of polyphenols to slow the production of the toxin.
Â The medical Establishment uses drugs almost exclusively in the treatment of mental diseases. These drugs have too many bad side effects. These bad side effects are discussed in the articles in the bibliography. Orthomolecular treatment, which involves the use of supplements, has good side effects. The orthomolecular diet is good for your health. Also orthomolecular treatment is much cheaper than the drugs or ECT. Orthomolecular treatment is safer than ECT, which is used for depression.